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ITEC 275 Computer Networks – Switching, Routing, and WANs Week 1 Instructor Professor D’Andrea Agenda • Introductions • Review policies, procedures, and expected outcomes • Learning Activities • Introduce homework problems • Location of Power Point presentations http://cs.franklin.edu/~dandrear/itec275/_Winter_ 2015_Network_Presentations/Week_One_Network _ppt or .pptx Introductions • Professor Robert D’Andrea – Adjunct faculty at Franklin – Winter term, teach ITEC275 and ITEC 400 – Cell phone 614.519.5853 • Industry experience in security, systems administration, network administration, software development, and deployment of software and hardware. Introductions • Program Chair Information Technology Professor Todd Whittaker – [email protected] – Cell phone 614.918.8321 Introductions • Face-To-Face introduction: – Name – Major – Interest level and experience in networking – Goal for this class Administration Principles of Computer Networks Top-Down Network Design A systems analysis approach to enterprise network design (3rd ed.). Indianapolis, IN: Cisco Press. ISBN: 978-1-58720-283-4 Administration Principles of Computer Networks ITEC275 serves as an introduction to the function, design, administration, and implementation of computer networks. Topics include network infrastructure, addressing, sub-netting, architecture, protocols, applications, and the OSI networking model. Administration Course Outcomes 1. Diagram an end-to-end network communication path, describing each intermediate step. 2. Design a small-scale network configuration, including addressing, routing, and switching. 3. Describe the functions of the TCP/IP and Ethernet protocols including select fields, flags, options, headers, and trailers for both. Administration Course Outcomes (cont’d) 4. Distinguish between types of data elements (segments, packets, frames, and bits). 5. Map the key elements of the TCP/IP protocol suite to the OSI model. Administration Text Oppenheimer, P. (2011). TopDown Network Design: A systems analysis approach to enterprise network design. (3rd ed.). Indianapolis, IN: Cisco Press. ISBN: 978-158720-283-4. Administration • Academic integrity – Items on the Web can serve as “inspiration” for your solutions if: • You understand the solution as if you had written it yourself. • You cite your source of inspiration – Not citing your source can get you charged with cheating/plagiarism. Administration • Academic integrity Note: if a homework problem says or “investigate Y,” then for – Items on the“research Web canX,”serve as “inspiration” I’m expecting a citation! Technically, your solutions if: you should cite your textbook on • You understand the solution as if you had written it almost every HW assignment. yourself. • You cite your source of inspiration – Not citing your source can get you charged with cheating/plagiarism. Administration • Academic integrity – Other students cannot serve as a source for your “inspiration!" • The closer you move toward sharing answers with or soliciting answers from another person (student or not), the more likely it is that you are cheating. Administration • Academic integrity – If you have a vague feeling that you wouldn’t want your instructor to know about what you’re doing… don’t do it. – When in doubt, ask your instructor. Administration Points breakdown Pct Type Count Each Total 10 20 200 15% Labs 3 50 150 25% Design Projects 3 75,75,100 250 30% Midterm/Final Exam 2 150 300 14 Variable 100 20% Homework 10% FranklinLive! 1000 Daily/weekly Activities • Daily: Check for announcements in your e-mail. • Before class 1. Read the associated sections from the text books and key points 2. Read and consider the weekly homework problems • After class 1. Complete the homework assignment 2. Work on any scheduled lab assignments 3. Note significant learning Course Outcomes Upon successful completion of this course students will be able to: • • • • • • • Determine an appropriate approach to design a network based on customer needs and consideration of financial and technological constraints. Identify the design considerations and tradeoffs for campus, LAN, WAN, MAN, and data center infrastructure models. Select appropriate WAN components used in a standard WAN architecture. Compare and contrast routing and addressing schemas and the mechanisms for implementing each one. Identify and describe the components and standards used for implementing telephony into a data network. Configure routers and switches using Cisco IOS commands. Effectively communicate how a network design plan meets a customer's connectivity needs. COMP 204 • Map protocols and addressing, routing, and switching into the appropriate layer of the OSI model. • Identify the main characteristics of hubs, switches, and routers. • Outline the features of the following TCP/IP protocols: UDP, TCP, IP. • Explain the characteristics of virtual LANs (VLANs) and Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) and the advantages they provide. Cisco Certification Design Associate (CCDA) The Associate-level certification are typically network design engineers, technicians, or support technicians. They are expected to design basic campus-type networks and be familiar with routing and switching, security, voice and video, wireless connectivity, and IP (both v4 and v6). They often work as part of a team with those who have higher-level Cisco certifications. Salary: $95,602 Top-Down Verses Bottom-up Network Design Top-down network design is an iterative process that recognizes a logical model and the physical design that can change as more or less information becomes available. Main goals of structured systems analysis. 1. Represent the user’s needs 2. Make the project manageable, using the latest techniques and tools available. Bottom-up network design is an unstructured approach to solving a network problem. This type of approach works on small or flat networks. Scalability isn’t a consideration when using this type of network design approach. Top-Down Network Design • Analyze your customers business goals. Business goals are the capability to run network applications to meet an organizations business objectives, within the business constraints. These constraints could be limited network personnel, budgets, and limited timeframe. • Good network design subscribes to the customers requirements to the letter. This would include business and technical goals, requirements for availability, scalability, affordability, manageability, and security needs. Some customers will specify a required level of network performance, referred to as service level. Top-Down Network Design • When a customer wants a quick fix design, it is referred to as a bottom-up network design. Associated with this type of design is unexpected scalability, poor performance, and does not meet the customers most important needs. • Top-down network design is a methodology for designing networks at the upper layers of the OSI model before referring to lower layers (devices, cabling, and switch configurations). • Top-down network design includes exploring organizational and group structures to find individuals the network is being designed to provide a services and from whom the design should get valuable information to make the design a success. Top-Down Network Design • Top-down network design is iterative. Initially, it is important to get the overall view of the customers requirements. Later, after digesting the high abstractions of the design, then focus on the finer details of the design like protocol behavior, scalability requirements, and technology preferences. Topdown network design recognizes that the logical model and the physical design can change as more information becomes available. • A top-down network design approach enables the designer to obtain “the big picture” initially, and the drilling down for specifics requirements and technical details. • Top-down network design is a methodology that grew out of structured software programming and structured systems analysis. Top-Down Network Design • Top-down network design divides the project up into small logical pieces known as modules. These modules allow large projects to be more manageable and easier to debug. Top-Down Network Design Modules are split into logical function entities. • The System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a top-down network design approach made up of four major phases and are carried out in a cyclical fashion: 1. Analyze requirements: Interview users and technical personal to gain an understanding of their business and technical goals for new or existing networks. 2. Develop the logical design: Logical topology for the new or existing network, security, switching, routing protocols. 3. Develop the physical design: This phase addresses the specific technologies and products that are realized in the logical design are selected. 4. Test, optimize, and document the design: Update the documentation that represents the network design, create test scenarios, build a prototype or pilot network, optimize the network design. Top-Down Network Design • The major phases of the top-down network design repeats itself. The user and the network monitoring suggest enhancements or the need for new specifications. Top-Down Network Design Network Design Plan Life Cycle (PDIOO) • Plan: Identify the network requirements in this phase. • Design: Complete the bulk of the logical and physical design. • Implement: Implement the building of the proposed network design. • Operate: Final test the effectiveness of the network design. This includes monitoring the network and services. • Optimize: This phase is based on actual operations. Identifying and resolving problems that were encountered. • Retire: When part or the whole network design no longer meets the needs of the company and users, this should be an avenue of consideration. This component is not officially part of the life cycle model. Top-Down Network Design The Plan Design Implement Operate Optimize (PDIOO) network life cycle is one of many types of network life cycles. It is irrelevant which life cycle is used, as long as long as the network design implements a network design that is structured, planned, modularized, and that feedback from the user is used to enhance the new network design. Top-Down Network Design Network Design Components • Analyzing Business Goals: Knowing your customers business goals and constraints. With a thorough understanding of your customers business objectives, you will be able to provide a network design that will meet your customers approval. • Working with Your Client: Research the type of business your client is in before meeting with them. Learn all that you can about his or her market, suppliers, services, and competitive advantage. • Changes in Enterprise Network: Internal users is limited for todays network needs. Your customer now has to think about remote entries both domestically, mobile access, RFS, and globally. Security is a topic that cannot be underestimated in our current network environment. • Network Must Make Sense; Business leaders today are more involved with IT decisions than past administrations. Customers want to operate leaner in data center personnel, power usage, and technology for technology’s sake. Top-Down Network Design Network Design Components • Networks Offer a service: IT departments are more service oriented than they use to be in the past. – Governance refers to a focus on consistent, cohesive, policies, and processes that protect an organization from mismanagement and illegal operations of users of IT services. – Compliance refers to adherence to regulations that protect against fraud and the disclosure of private customer data. • Need to Support Mobile Users: Network users expect network performance to be uniform , regardless of where the user or data resides. • The Importance of Network Security and Resiliency: Enterprises have to protect themselves from internal, web, and external from more areas than past environments. • Typical Network Design Business Goals: Listed on pages 13 and 14. Top-Down Network Design Identify the scope of the network design project. • Small in scope: Sales staff might be allowed to access the enterprise network via VPN • Large in scope: Engineering personal and remote access through the Enterprise Edge Network designers should ask their customers to help them understand the scope of the network design project. Network design questions: 1. Is the design for a single segment 2. A set of LANs or WLANs 3. A set of WANs or private network 4. Remote-access networks 5. Entire enterprise network 6. A set of MANs OSI Reference Model Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical • • • • • All People Seem To Need Data Processing Each layer provides a different level of abstraction Each layer has a well-defined function Layer boundaries are chosen to minimize the information flow between layer boundaries The number of layers is kept small enough to be feasible OSI – Physical Layer Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Transmits bits over communication channel Bits can be encoded in digital form (“0” or “1”) or analog (varied voltage) (did you buy your TV converter?) Does not have any knowledge of data that it transmits Examples of media: n twisted-pair cable n coaxial cable n fiber optics n wireless OSI – Data Link Layer Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical The bits that are send or received in the Physical Layer are grouped in logical units called frames The beginning and end of each frame is usually marked by special characters Examples: Ethernet Token Ring FDDI ISDN OSI – Network Layer Application Presentation Makes it possible to send units of Session Transport Network Data Link Physical information (packets) across different network (routing) Uniform addressing scheme Helps eliminate network congestion Regulate flow of data Examples: IP IPX (Novell anyone?) OSI – Transport Layer Application Ensures reliable delivery of packets Error recovery Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Multiplexing the network connection (the use of the network by multiple applications simultaneously) Examples: TCP UDP SPX (yeah, that Novell thing) OSI – Session Layer Application Provides enhanced session services Examples: Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Telnet session FTP session rlogin session Cookies (web) OSI – Presentation Layer Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Manages the way data is represented: Encryption Encoding Examples: ASCII EBCDIC HTML XML OSI – Application Layer Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Provides a protocol for a certain application Examples: DNS HTTP FTP SMTP TELNET SNMP OSI versus TCP/IP Application Presentation Application Session Transport Transport Network Internet Data Link Physical Network Access TCP/IP Model Boundaries Application Transport Internet Network Access Application address (port) for TCP and UDP IP address (host) MAC address (NIC) Protocol Data Unit (PDU) • Contains information about the source and destination of a message in the header. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TCP/IP_model Evaluate Business Constraints Company Politics Throughout your discussion with the customer, try to learn who the individuals are that do the authorization, buying process, and fiscal period when buying occurs Be on the alert for: • • • • • Hidden agendas Turf wars Biases Group relations Individuals within the company that could cause the network project to fail (engineers or managers) • Number of employees affected by the new design • Customers preference towards the use of certain protocols, Evaluate Business Constraints Company Politics • Strategic business or IT plan • Customers preference towards the use of certain protocols • Forbidden technologies • Are there governmental guidelines that need to be followed • Determine the amount of risk the customer is willing to tolerate • Determine the group that controls the budget Evaluate Project Scheduling Review with Customer • Timeframe for project • Identify due date • Identify the implementation dates • What are the minor and major milestones Devices - Network Terminology Domain: A specific part of a network Bandwidth: The amount of data that can be carried across a network in a given time period Unicast data: Data meant for a specific device Broadcast data: Data meant for all devices Multicast data: Data that is meant for a specific group of devices Bandwidth domain: All devices that share the same bandwidth (Collision domain) Broadcast domain: All devices that receive each other’s broadcasts and multicasts Devices - Network Terminology Governance: Focuses on consistency, stability in decisions, policies, and processes that protect a company from being mismanaged and involved in illegal activities of users of IT services. Compliance: The agreement to follow regulations that protect against fraud and the privacy of private customer information. Devices - Hubs • Layer 1 device – Also known as repeaters • Connects multiple devices so that they are logically on one LAN • Has no intelligence – Sends data received on one port to all other ports – Devices connected receive all data other connections send – All devices are on one collision and broadcast domain Devices - Switches • Layer 2 device • Segregates multiple devices into smaller LANs • Has some intelligence – Reads source and destination MAC addresses and sends data to the appropriate port based on that – All devices connected to one switch port are in the same collision domain – Devices connected to individual switch ports are in their own collision domain – All devices connected to a switch are in the same broadcast domain Devices – Multilayer Switches • Does all that a layer 2 does but adds layer 3 and 4 capabilities • Acts as a router with some functions in hardware when used for VLAN functions – Groups ports into one or more VLANs that are configured (using management software) so that they can communicate as if they were attached to the same wire – VLANs are identified by different IP ranges – Trunk – A port that carries more than one VLAN between switches VLANs Physical LAN vs. Logical VLAN Devices - Routers • Layer 3 device • Network perimeter device • Has much more intelligence than switches – Reads source and destination logical addresses and sends data only where it is needed – Transfers data between LANS but blocks broadcasts – All devices connected to one router port are in the same collision/broadcast domain Switching • Switches learn which devices are connected their ports by examining traffic • Class A – – – – IPv4 Addressing Provides 16M hosts Range of addresses: 22.214.171.124 through 126.96.36.199 Mask 255.0.0.0 Restricted addresses 10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255 • Class B – – – – Provides 65K hosts Range of addresses: 188.8.131.52 through 184.108.40.206 Mask 255.255.0.0 Restricted addresses 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255 • Class C – – – – Provides 254 hosts Range of addresses: 192.0.0.0 through 220.127.116.11 Mask 255.255.255.0 Restricted addresses 192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255 Mask Notation • Values – Network = 1 – Host = 0 • Classful example (Class B address) – 18.104.22.168 – 255.255.0.0 – 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000 • Subnets – borrow bits – 255.255.128.0 – 11111111.11111111.10000000.00000000 – 22.214.171.124/17 (VLSM/CIDR) Terms Service level is when a customer specifies a required level of network performance (QoS). This Week’s Outcomes • • • • • • • Evaluating business goals and constraints OSI Model TCP Model Network Devices Networking Switching Addressing Software required • Provided CD\resources\software – Visio 2007 • Instructions - InstallingMSVisio2007.pdf • CISCO.vss – Documents\MyShapes – MIMIC Virtual Lab • MIMIC software installation is NOT required • Virtual Machine – VMware View Client v4.6 is needed – Download from http://vlab.franklin.edu – System provisioning takes some time – Logins may not work until week 2 or 3 • Purchase (If desired) – Instructions – installvlab.pdf Due this week • Software installation (no points) • Review course goals and objectives Next week • Read chapters 1 and 2 in Top-Down Network Design • 1-3 – Concept questions 1 • FranklinLive session 2 Q&A • Questions, comments, concerns?