Chapter 06: Learning Download

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OpenStax Psychology Test Bank
Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology
Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology
* = Correct answer
Multiple Choice
1. Critical thinking is ________.
A. applying a set of skills to find information about a controversial topic
*B. applying a set of skills to understand and evaluate information
C. applying information to understand and evaluate social phenomena
D. reviewing information on the Internet to develop a critical opinion on it
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1
2. Which of the following defines hypothesis?
A. idea that proves a theory
B. means of explaining social phenomena
*C. tentative explanation
D. way of looking at the world
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1, 2.1, 2.4
3. Psychology refers to the ________.
A. empirical study of humanity
B. experimental study of individuals
*C. scientific study of the mind
D. systematic study of human interaction
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1
4. Which of the following refers to a broad explanation or group of explanations for some aspect
of the natural world that is consistently supported by evidence over time?
A. -ology
B. hypothesis
C. pseudoscience
*D. scientific theory
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.4
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5. Psychology is a social science discipline. Psychologists scientifically study ________.
A. only behavior
B. only the mind
*C. the mind and behavior
D. the soul, the mind, and behavior
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1
6. The empirical method of study is based on ________.
A. guesswork
*B. observation
C. practice
D. statistics
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1, 2.4
7. When was psychology accepted as an academic discipline?
A. 1600s
B. 1700s
*C. 1800s
D. 1900sDifficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
8. What is a PsyD?
A. Doctor of Philosophy
B. Doctor of Psychiatry
C. Doctor of Psychoanalysis
*D. Doctor of Psychology
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1, 5.5
9. Who was the first person referred to as a psychologist?
A. Wolfgang Köhler
B. Sigmund Freud
*C. Wilhelm Wundt
D. William James
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Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.5
10. Introspection refers to a process by which someone examines ________ as objectively as
possible.
A. another person’s consciousness*
B. her own conscious experience
C. her own subconscious experience
D. the social construction of consciousness
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.3
11. William James was the ________.
A. author of the first psychology textbook
B. father of psychology
*C. first American psychologist
D. first psychoanalyst
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
12. Psychoanalytic theory focuses on ________ and early childhood experiences.
A. a person’s consciousness
*B. a person’s unconscious
C. fetal development
D. sexual identity
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
13. According to William James, the purpose of psychology was to ________.
A. interpret dreams
B. manipulate human behavior
*C. study the function of behavior
D. study the structure and characteristics of the mind
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
14. Which of the following psychologists was a behaviorist?
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Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology
*A. John Watson
B. Sigmund Freud
C. Wilhelm Wundt
D. William James
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
15. Behaviorists study ________.
A. a person’s unconscious mind
B. chemical and hormonal changes
C. dreams
*D. learned behavior
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
16. A(n) ________ is a chamber that isolates the subject from the external environment.
A. gestaltlaten
B. isolate
*C. Skinner box
D. Watson manipulator
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 2.4
17. ________ is a perspective within psychology that emphasizes the potential for good that is
innate to all humans.
A. behaviorism
B. gestalt
*C. humanism
D. structuralism
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
18. What is Abraham Maslow best known for?
A. classical conditioning
B. dream analysis
*C. proposing a hierarchy of human needs in motivating behavior
D. studying the influence of reinforcement and punishment on behavior
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Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
19. Who started the feminist revolution in psychology?
A. Anna Freud
B. Bruno Bettelheim
*C. Naomi Weisstein
D. Sigmund Freud
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
20. Who was the first African American to receive a PhD in psychology in the United States?
A. Carl Rogers
*B. Francis Cecil Sumner
C. Naomi Weisstein
D. Noam Chomsky
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
21. Why do scientists refer to Charles Darwin’s ideas about evolution as the theory of evolution?
A. After numerous hypotheses were developed by Charles Darwin, they were collected together
into a theory.
B. Contemporary scientists do not accept it as a viable way of looking at the world.
C. Evolution only works theoretically.
*D. It is the best understanding that we have of that part of the natural world.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 2.1
22. Which aspect of the scientific method occurs first?
A. data collection
B. experiment
*C. hypothesis
D. observation
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 2.1, 2.4
23. For a scientific explanation to be testable, it must also be ________.
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A. conscious and unconscious
B. experimental and provable
C. hypothesized and theoretical
*D. perceivable and measurable
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 2.1, 2.4
24. Which of the following exemplifies the empirical method?
A. A student in a psychology class writes his term paper on whether or not fish feel pain.
B. A student writes a letter to his professor requesting a change in course policy.
C. Dr. Hysock-Witham decides to start her course later because so many students arrive late.
*D. Dr. Sarkeesian observes and records how watching cartoons influences heart rates.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 2.4
25. Char heard from her friends that marijuana use can cure glaucoma so it should be legal in all
50 states. Char knows that she is biased in favor of marijuana legalization, so she decides to
exercise some skepticism about this claim. She researches where her friends got their
information, how reliable it is, and what other sources say about legalizing marijuana. Char is
________.
A. acting unconsciously
B. hypothesizing
C. theorizing
*D. thinking critically
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.3, 2.1, 2.2, 2.4
26. Guillermo spends some time each day applying the principles of structuralism to examine his
own conscious experience as carefully as possible. Guillermo is engaged in ________.
A. behaviorism
B. client-centered therapy
*C. introspection
D. psychoanalysis
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.3
27. Functionalist psychologists focus on the function of behavior and ________.
A. explaining the subconscious
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B. the operation of individual parts of the mind
*C. the operation of the whole mind rather than the individual parts
D. understanding the id, ego, and superego
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
28. Which of the following is an example of an objective measure used by functionalists?
*A. examination of anatomy and physiology
B. exculpation
C. extrospection
D. interviews
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 2.4
29. Dr. Bogdarian noticed that one of her students addresses her with the word mother instead of
the word professor or doctor. Dr. Bogdarian applies the principles of ________, and
hypothesizes the student misspeaks because he is unconsciously associating her with his mother.
A. functionalism
B. Gestalt psychology
*C. psychoanalytic theory
D. structuralism
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3
30. A series of dots arranged in the shape of a face will be perceived as a face, not a series of
dots. A psychologist studying this phenomenon is applying the principals of ________.
*A. Gestalt psychology
B. humanism
C. psychoanalytic theory
D. structuralism
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3
31. I provide Ralph with the positive reinforcement of a candy bar when he does something I
like. I punish him by squirting him with a squirt gun when he does something I don’t like. I am
applying the principles of ________ in an attempt to modify Ralph’s behavior.
A. classical conditioning
B. functionalism
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C. humanism
*D. operant conditioning
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3
32. In Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the ________ include food, water, and shelter.
*A. basic survival needs
B. comfort objects
C. higher-level needs
D. wants
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
33. Which of the following exemplifies the unconditional positive regard component of clientcentered therapy?
*A. Abby tells her therapist that she tripped a small child who got in her way, and her therapist
accepts this information without judgment.
B. Boris tells his therapist that that he needs stronger medication and his therapist prescribes it.
C. Natasha is late for her therapy session and her therapist believes she did this because she
unconsciously dislikes therapy.
D. Xavier receives a hug from the doctor when he arrives on time; he does not get a hug when he
arrives late.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3
34. Marta is pursuing a graduate degree in psychology. As part of her program she must write a
long research paper based on the data she spent the last year gathering. What is the long research
paper called?
*A. dissertation
B. PhD
C. postdoctoral
D. PsyD
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 5.5
35. Penelope studies how the structure and function of the nervous system is related to behavior.
She is a ________.
*A. biopsychologist
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B. developmental psychologist
C. humanist
D. social psychologist
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
36. Peter is interested in pursuing a ________ training program with the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention after he receives his PhD, which will allow him to further develop his
research on adolescent suicide and broaden his research skills under the supervision of CDC
researchers.
A. industrial
B. medical
*C. postdoctoral
D. predoctoral
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 5.5
37. The cognitive revolution created an impetus for psychologists to focus their attention on
better understanding ________.
A. emotions and cultural norms that underlie emotional responses
B. genetics and the evolutionary adaptations that underlie behavior
C. stimulus-response and the instincts that underlie human reaction to pain
*D. the mind and mental processes that underlie behavior
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
38. Lucy wants to study changes in cognitive skills, moral reasoning, and social behavior across
the lifespan. Lucy should specialize in ________ psychology.
A. cognitive
*B. developmental
C. personality
D. social
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
39. If you show an adult a toy, and then hide it behind a curtain, the adult knows that the toy still
exists. However, infants act as if a hidden object no longer exists. What does this exemplify?
A. article blindness
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B. developmental theory
*C. object permanence
D. perpetuation
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.3, 2.1
40. Cognitive psychology focuses on studying ________.
A. genetics and the effect of genetics on behavior
B. sensation and the effect of culture on perception
C. the effect of gender, race, and class on behavior
*D. thoughts and their relationship to our experiences and our actions
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
41. Which kind of psychological area does the work of Jean Piaget exemplify?
A. biopsychology
*B. developmental psychology
C. personality psychology
D. sensation and perception
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
42. Which theorist published research related to the psychology of personality?
A. Charles Darwin
B. Jean Piaget
C. Noam Chomsky
*D. Sigmund Freud
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
43. In the study of personality, the ________ model includes dimensions of conscientiousness,
agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extroversion.
A. H.O.P.E.S.
B. Either-Or
C. Fifth Dimension
*D. Five Factor
Difficulty: Moderate
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APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
44. When studying personality traits, someone who is practical, conventional, and prefers routine
will score low on the ________ trait.
A. agreeableness
B. extroversion
C. neuroticism
*D. openness
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
45. Edmund wants to identify relatively consistent patterns of thought and behavior, measure
these traits, and determine how these traits interact in a particular context to determine how a
person will behave in any given situation. Edmund wants to conduct research in the area of
________.
A. cognition
B. perception
*C. personality
D. social psychology
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
46. When studying personality traits, someone who is hardworking, dependable, and organized
will score high on the ________ trait.
A. agreeableness
*B. conscientiousness
C. extroversion
D. neuroticism
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
47. Susan wants to study prejudice, attraction, how we explain our own behavior versus how we
explain the behavior of others, and how we resolve interpersonal conflicts. Susan should conduct
research in the area of ________.
A. Gestalt psychology
B. personality
C. psychoanalysis
*D. social psychology
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Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
48. When studying personality traits, someone who is quiet, reserved, and withdrawn will score
low on the ________ trait.
A. agreeableness
*B. extroversion
C. neuroticism
D. openness
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
49. Select the correctly ordered list of psychological theorists, with the earliest theorist listed
first.
A. Noam Chomsky, Sigmund Freud, Wilhelm Wundt
B. Noam Chomsky, Wilhelm Wundt, Sigmund Freud
C. Sigmund Freud, Noam Chomsky, Wilhelm Wundt
*D. Wilhelm Wundt, Sigmund Freud, Noam Chomsky
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
50. Behaviorism focuses on making psychology an objective science by ________.
A. studying how emotional responses influence behavior while deemphasizing the importance of
the subconscious
B. studying implicit motivations for behavior through the use of implicit association tests
*C. studying overt behavior and deemphasizing the importance of unobservable mental
processes
D. studying the genetic basis for behavior and theorizing how instincts influence behavior
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
51. Oona wants to conduct research on personnel management, workplace environment, and
what type of environment results in high levels of employee productivity and efficiency. Oona
should conduct research in the area of ________ psychology.
A. biological
B. Gestalt
*C. industrial-organizational
D. social
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Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
52. When studying personality traits, someone who is calm, even-tempered, and secure will
score low on the ________ trait.
A. agreeableness
B. conscientiousness
*C. neuroticism
D. openness
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
53. Which of the following is an example of research someone might conduct in the area of
health psychology?
A. how the age of a leader affects the productivity of the group
B. what personality traits are present more often in men compared to women
C. whether culture influences perception
*D. whether people working at a desk are more likely to be obese
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
54. What is the number one occupation employing graduates with a BA in psychology?
A. human resources
B. marketing
*C. mid- and top-level management
D. social work
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 5.5
55. Which theorist had the most influence in shaping how clinicians interact with people seeking
psychotherapy?
A. Abraham Maslow
*B. Carl Rogers
C. Wilhelm Wundt
D. William James
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
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56. Ashya wants to focus on the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and other
problematic patterns of behavior. What area of psychology should she work in?
*A. clinical psychology
B. cognitive psychology
C. organizational psychology
D. social psychology
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
57. Which kind of psychologist would be consulted in jury selection and witness preparation?
A. cognitive
B. counseling
*C. forensic
D. legal
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3
58. Naghemeh wants to focus on the emotional, social, vocational, and health-related outcomes
of individuals who are considered psychologically healthy. Which area of psychology should she
work in?
A. biopsychology
B. clinical psychology
*C. counseling psychology
D. wellness psychology
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
59. When studying personality traits, someone who is helpful, trusting, and empathetic will score
high on the ________ trait.
*A. agreeableness
B. conscientiousness
C. neuroticism
D. openness
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
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60. Select the correctly ordered list of psychological perspectives, with the earliest perspective
listed first.
A. humanism, behaviorism, structuralism, functionalism
B. humanism, structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism
*C. structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism, humanism
D. structuralism, functionalism, humanism, behaviorism
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
61. Which of the following is not involved in critical thinking?
*A. knowing your opinion is correct
B. maintaining an attitude of skepticism
C. making use of logical thinking
D. recognizing internal biases
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
62. What do structuralism, Gestalt psychology, and Sigmund Freud all have in common?
A. They were all concerned with describing and understanding animal behavior.
*B. They were all concerned with describing and understanding the inner experience.
C. They were all concerned with diagnosing and treating female psychosis.
D. They were all concerned with the nature of evil during the Nazi regime.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
63. Why is psychology considered a social science?
A. Because psychologists study groups and how groups interact.
B. Because psychology is not considered a hard science.
*C. Behavior is biological, and our behavior is influenced by our interactions with others.
D. Behavior is unpredictable, so scientists study it.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1
64. Which of the following is not part of feminist psychology?
A. discovering the contributions of women to psychology
*B. favoring women over men
C. questioning the practice of science itself when it is male biased
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D. studying psychological gender differences
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
65. Which of the following is a criticism of structuralism?
A. Scientific instruments were not sensitive enough to measure precise reaction times.
B. Structuralism was parsimonious.
*C. The process was highly subjective.
D. Wilhelm Wundt falsified his results.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
66. According to Sigmund Freud, all of the following represent ways to access the unconscious
mind except through ________.
A. dream analysis
B. examination of the first words that come to someone’s mind
C. seemingly innocent slips of the tongue
*D. the use of reinforcement and punishment
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
67. Which of the following is a reason that Gestalt psychology did not become more popular in
the United States?
A. European psychology is not as rigorous as American psychology.
B. The proponents were Nazis.
*C. The rise of behaviorism overshadowed Gestalt psychology.
D. The theories were not based on measurable data.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
68. Behaviorists all focus on ________.
A. individual attitudes
*B. physiological responses that result in action
C. the internal motivation for action
D. the subconscious
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
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69. What should be changed to make the following statement true? Jean Piaget is famous for his
theories regarding changes in emotional ability that occur as we move from infancy to adulthood.
*A. The word “emotional” should be changed to the word “cognitive.”
B. The word “famous” should be changed to the word “infamous.”
C. The word “infancy” should be changed to the word “adolescence.”
D. The name “Jean Piaget” should be changed to “Abraham Maslow.”
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
70. Which of the following exemplifies a personality trait?
A. Greg eats a cupcake.
*B. Ida is charming.
C. James has blue eyes.
D. Marsha has three children.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1
71. Which of the following does not influence perception?
*A. Gestalt
B. cultural background
C. previous experiences
D. where we focus our attention
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1
72. In a study of mate preference differences between men and women that spanned 37 cultures,
Buss (1989) found that men value youthful appearance more than women. Why?
A. Men are more sexually responsive with younger women.
B. Men need to display their mates as a trophy.
C. Women are not as superficial as men.
*D. Youthful looks provide fertility clues.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 2.2
73. What should be changed to make the following sentence true? Humanism focuses on the
potential of all people for evil.
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*A. The word “evil” should be changed to the word “good.”
B. The word “people” should be changed to the word “children.”
C. The word “people” should be changed to the word “groups.”
D. The word “potential” should be changed to the word “use.”
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
74. In developmental psychology, there is an increasing interest in researching cognitive changes
that occur later in life. Why?
A. The elderly are contracting more cognitive diseases.
B. People in developed nations revere the elderly.
*C. Populations of developed nations are living longer.
D. Populations of developing nations are dying sooner.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
75. What do industrial and organizational psychology, health psychology, sport and exercise
psychology, forensic psychology, and clinical psychology all have in common?
A. Job growth is greatest in these fields.
B. They all focus on groups instead of individuals.
C. They are all areas of psychology that developed in the 19th century.
*D. They are all examples of applied psychology.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3
76. According to the biopsychosocial model, what determines health?
A. applying biological principles to the psychology of a healthy social life
*B. interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors
C. primarily biology; individual psychology and social factors are sometimes relevant
D. successful application of biopsychological principles to social life
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3
77. What should be changed to make the following sentence true? Sigmund Freud believed that
understanding the unconscious mind was critical to understand subconscious behavior.
A. The name “Sigmund Freud” should be changed to “Wilhelm Wundt.”
*B. The word “subconscious” should be changed to the word “conscious.”
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C. The word “unconscious” to the word “conscious.”
D. The word “understand” should be changed to the word “believing.”
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
78. What was the primary conclusion of Stanley Milgram’s obedience research?
*A. Average people will harm others if told to do so by an authority figure.
B. Everyday behavior can be explained by instincts developed in our ancestral population.
C. Our mothers have an enormous impact on our personality.
D. What we sense and what we perceive vary according to culture, race, and gender.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 2.2
79. Which of the following is a feminist criticism of the science of psychology?
*A. Male bias exists in science.
B. Male psychologists assume that their results do not apply to women.
C. Male psychologists do not pay enough attention to relationships.
D. Male psychologists emphasize objective data over subjective data.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
80. Which of the following is a criticism of evolutionary psychology?
*A. It ignores non-genetic factors in determining human behavior.
B. It is easy to disprove theories developed by evolutionary psychologists.
C. It places too much emphasis on genetic factors in determining human behavior.
D. There are no female evolutionary psychologists.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 2.4
Short Answer
81. Why did behaviorists commonly use animals in their experiments?
Sample Answer: Behaviorists commonly used animals in experiments under the assumption that
what was learned using animal models could, to some degree, be applied to human behavior.
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
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82. What three features are central to Carl Rogers’s client-centered therapy?
Sample Answer: Carl Rogers believed that a therapist needed to display three features to
maximize the effectiveness of the client-centered approach: unconditional positive regard,
genuineness, and empathy.
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
83. Who is Noam Chomsky?
Sample Answer: Noam Chomsky is an American linguist. He was dissatisfied with the influence
that behaviorism had had on psychology. He believed that psychology’s focus on behavior was
short-sighted, and the field had to re-incorporate mental functioning into its purview if it were to
offer any meaningful contributions to understanding behavior. Chomsky was very influential in
beginning the cognitive revolution.
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
84. List some facts about the American Psychological Association.
Sample Answer: The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization
that represents psychologists in the United States. The APA is the largest organization of
psychologists in the world, and its mission is to advance and disseminate psychological
knowledge for the betterment of people. There are 56 divisions within the APA. Members,
affiliate members, and associate members span the spectrum from students to doctoral-level
psychologists; they come from a variety of places including educational settings, criminal justice,
hospitals, the armed forces, and industry.
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1
85. Identify the important subjects in psychological research conducted by African Americans
such as Francis Cecil Sumner.
Sample Answer: Much of the work of early African American psychologists (and a general focus
of much work in first half of the 20th century in psychology in the United States) was dedicated
to testing and intelligence testing in particular. Other areas of exploration in African American
psychology research include learning style, sense of community and belonging, and spiritualism.
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 2.5
86. Describe Pavlov’s classical conditioning experiment.
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Sample Answer: Pavlov studied a form of learning behavior called a conditioned reflex: An
animal or human produced a reflex (unconscious) response to a stimulus and, over time, was
conditioned to produce the response to a different stimulus that the experimenter associated with
the original stimulus. The reflex Pavlov worked with was salivating in response to the presence
of food. The salivation reflex could be elicited using a second stimulus, such as a specific sound,
that was presented in association with the initial food stimulus several times. Once the response
to the second stimulus was learned, the food stimulus could be omitted.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 2.2
87. How did B. F. Skinner study the effect of reinforcement and punishment on behavior?
Sample Answer: B. F. Skinner created the Skinner box, which is an operant conditioning
chamber that isolates the subject from the external environment and has a behavior indicator
(e.g., a lever or a button). When the animal (i.e., the subject) pushes the button or lever, the box
is able to deliver a positive reinforcement of the behavior (e.g., food) or a punishment (e.g., a
noise) or a token conditioner (e.g., a light) that is correlated with either the positive
reinforcement or punishment.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 2.2
88. Explain what Sigmund Freud believed to be the cause of human behavior versus what
behaviorists believe.
Sample Answer: According to Sigmund Freud, all actions are driven by the unconscious, while
behaviorists believe human behavior is entirely determined by a combination of genetics and
environment.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
89. Compare behaviorists and humanists.
Sample Answer: Behaviorists emphasize objectivity and focus on external behavior. The early
work of the humanistic psychologists focused on the individual human as a whole—as a
conscious and self-aware being.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
90. What is the Association for Psychological Science (APS) and why was it founded?
Sample Answer: The Association for Psychological Science (APS) was founded in 1988 and
seeks to advance the scientific orientation of psychology. This group was created as a result of
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disagreements between members of the scientific and clinical branches of psychology within the
American Psychological Association (APA).
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1
91. Apply evolutionary psychology to explain why a child might be afraid of snakes the first
time she encounters one.
Sample Answer: A child who is afraid of snakes without ever having been bitten or seen
someone bitten by a snake, might be displaying an instinctive fear that evolved over time in the
human population. In early human history, humans who were unafraid of snakes probably were
fatally bitten more often, so humans that were afraid of snakes survived long enough to pass
along their genetic predispositions.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3
92. Why are the five trait dimensions in the Five Factor model used to account for personality
variation?
Sample Answer: The dimensions of conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness,
and extroversion are used to account for personality variation because they have been
demonstrated to be relatively stable over the lifespan, and they are influenced by genetics.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
93. Stanley Milgram and many other psychologists practiced deception in their research. What
impact did this have on the ethical guidelines followed by psychologists?
Sample Answer: Stanley Milgram’s and others’ studies that involved deception and potential
emotional harm to study participants catalyzed the development of ethical guidelines for
conducting psychological research. The ethical guidelines discourage the use of deception with
research subjects, unless it can be argued that the deception will not cause harm. The guidelines
also require obtaining informed consent of participants.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 2.2, 3.1
94. Describe and exemplify forensic psychology.
Sample Answer: Forensic psychology is a branch of psychology that handles questions of
psychology as they arise in the context of the justice system. For example, forensic psychologists
(and forensic psychiatrists) will assess a person’s competency to stand trial, assess the state of
mind of a defendant, act as consultants on child custody cases, consult on sentencing and
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treatment recommendations, and advise on issues such as eyewitness testimony and children’s
testimony.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3
95. How is a PsyD different from a PhD?
Sample Answer: Doctor of psychology (PsyD) programs generally place less emphasis on
research-oriented skills and focus more on application of psychological principles in the clinical
context. You would obtain a PhD to work in an academic setting, but you might opt for a PsyD
to work outside of an academic setting.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 5.5
96. Why would someone choose to work as an adjunct instructor rather than a professor?
Sample Answer: Adjunct faculty members and instructors usually have an advanced degree in
psychology, but they may have a primary career outside academia and work as adjunct faculty as
a secondary job. Alternatively, they may not hold the doctoral degree required by most four-year
institutions and use these opportunities to gain experience in teaching. Finally, they may want a
full-time position as a professor but are unable to find one.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 5.5
97. Javed just earned his PhD in psychology. He is considering pursuing a postdoctoral program.
What are the advantages of doing so?
Sample Answer: A postdoctoral training program would allow Javed to further develop his
research program and broaden his research skills under the supervision of other professionals in
the field. Through postdoctoral training, Javed can develop professional contacts that might lead
to a job, and it will look good on his résumé/curriculum vitae.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 5.5
98. What is required to pursue a career as a licensed clinical psychologist?
Sample Answer: Those who want to pursue a career as a clinical psychologist will need either a
PhD or a PsyD. In most states, those wishing to practice as a licensed clinical or counseling
psychologist may complete postdoctoral work under the supervision of a licensed psychologist—
regardless of the degree earned: PhD or PsyD. After the state requirements are met, their
credentials are evaluated to determine whether they can sit for the licensure exam. Those who
pass this exam are licensed clinical or counseling psychologists.
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Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 5.5
99. Compare and contrast the job of psychiatrist with that of a licensed clinical psychologist.
Sample Answer: Clinical psychologists and psychiatrists do different things and receive different
types of education. While both can conduct therapy and counseling, clinical psychologists have a
PhD or a PsyD, and psychiatrists have a doctor of medicine degree (MD). As such, licensed
clinical psychologists can administer and interpret psychological tests, while psychiatrists can
prescribe medications.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 5.5
100. What sort of job can you get with a master’s degree in psychology?
Sample Answer: With a master’s degree in psychology, an individual can pursue a career in
professional counseling or sport psychology, as a school psychologist, as a consultant in various
industrial settings, or as an adjunct professor.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 5.5
101. Compare and contrast structuralism and functionalism.
Sample Answer: While structuralism focused on understanding the conscious experience,
functionalism focused on how mental activities helped an organism adapt to its environment.
Wilhelm Wundt, a structuralist theorist, believed that our cognitive experience was best
understood by breaking that experience into its component parts using introspection. William
James was a functionalist: Functionalism focused on how mental activities served as adaptive
responses to an organism’s environment. Like Wundt, James also relied on introspection;
however, James’s research approach also incorporated more objective measures.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
102. What made the use of introspection by Wilhelm Wundt scientifically rigorous?
Sample Answer: Wilhelm Wundt’s version of introspection used only very specific experimental
conditions in which an external stimulus was designed to produce a scientifically observable
(i.e., repeatable) experience of the mind. The first stringent requirement was the use of trained or
practiced observers who could immediately observe and report a reaction. The second
requirement was the use of repeatable stimuli that always produced the same experience in the
subject that allowed the subject to expect and thus be fully attentive to her inner reaction. These
experimental requirements were put in place to eliminate interpretation in the reporting of
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internal experiences and to counter the argument that there is no way to know that an individual
is observing her mind or consciousness accurately, since it cannot be seen by any other person.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 2.2, 2.4
103. Sigmund Freud’s ideas are often criticized. How does Drew Westen defend Freud’s ideas?
Sample Answer: Drew Westen argues that many of the criticisms of Sigmund Freud’s ideas are
misplaced: They attack his older ideas without taking into account later writings. Westen also
argues that critics fail to consider the success of the broad ideas that Freud introduced or
developed, such as the importance of childhood experiences in adult motivations, the role of
unconscious versus conscious motivations in driving our behavior, the fact that motivations can
cause conflicts that affect behavior, the effects of mental representations of ourselves and others
in guiding our interactions, and the development of personality over time. Westen identifies
subsequent research support for all of these ideas.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 2.2
104. Discuss some feminist critiques of early psychological approaches.
Sample Answer: The dominant influence of Western, White, and male academics in the early
history of psychology meant that psychology developed with the biases inherent in those
individuals, which often had negative consequences for members of society that were not White
or male. Individuals who were not White, male heterosexuals had difficulties entering the field of
psychology and therefore influenced its development. They also suffered from the attitudes of
White, male psychologists that marginalized them. Few women were able to practice
psychology, so they had little influence on what was studied. In addition, the experimental
subjects of psychology were mostly men, so early psychological approaches could not properly
generalize to the entire population.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 2.5
105. Identify an advantage cross-cultural psychology has over traditional psychological
approaches.
Sample Answer: Culture has important impacts on individuals and social psychology, yet the
effects of culture on psychology have not been studied sufficiently. There is a risk that
psychological theories and data derived from White, American settings could be assumed to
apply to individuals and social groups from other cultures—this is likely to be false. Crosscultural psychology addresses this potential issue by addressing the effect of culture on
individual and social psychology.
Difficulty: Difficult
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APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 2.5, 3.3
106. Identify a major criticism of evolutionary psychology.
Sample Answer: The traits that we possess now evolved under environmental and social
conditions far back in human history, and we have a poor understanding of what those conditions
were. Therefore, predictions about what is adaptive for a behavior are difficult. Behavioral traits
do not need to be adaptive under current conditions; rather, they were adaptive under the
conditions of the past when they evolved, about which we can only hypothesize.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2
Essay
107. If you were pursuing a career in psychology would you rather work at a university or
outside an academic setting? Explain.
Difficulty: Easy
APA Standard: 4.1, 5.5
108. Do you believe psychologists make a difference is people’s lives? Explain.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 1.3, 4.1, 5.1
109. Describe some major advantages and disadvantages of majoring in psychology.
Difficulty: Moderate
APA Standard: 4.1, 5.5
110. Do you think you could successfully use Carl Rogers’s client-centered therapy to treat a
rapist or murderer? Explain.
Difficulty: Difficult
APA Standard: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.2, 4.1
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