Arabic terms Qur`an `to recite`, =direct word of God (perfect, contains Download

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Arabic terms
Qur’an
‘to recite’, =direct word of God (perfect, contains all wisdom, inimitable, miracle)
Mushaf
Qur’an as physical object
Sura
chapter of the Qur’an, origin of word uncertain (114, ordered by size)
bashmallah
‘in the name of God, the most mercyfull’, beginning of each Sura except Q9
shahada
unicity of Allah
Aya
verse of the Qur’an (total = 6236)
juz’
recital part of Quran (total = 30), half = hizb, quarter of hizb = raba hizb
fushâ
pure Arabic, purest form is found in the Qur’an
‘amiyya
dialect
Isrâ’
journey of Muhammad to Jerusalem
Mir’âj
journey of Muhammad to the seven heavens with Gabriel
Medina
‘city of the prophet’ (old name = Yithrab)
Quraysh
tribe of Muhammad
futuhat
conquests of well-guided caliphs
qira’at:
seven right readings of the Qur’an (Hafs, from Asim + Warsh, from Nâfi’)
Mu’awiya
destruction of illegitimate Qur’ans
shirk
sin of ascribing offspring to Allah
kufr
people who refuse Gods revelation
takdhib
liars, don’t believe in the afterlife or in Muhammad as prophet
kitab
book (also mentioned: Tâwrat, Injil, Zabûr, Hikma and sheets of Abraham and Moses)
rashûl
function of prophet: to deliver a message from Allah
nabî
function of prophet: an heir of Abraham
Laylat al-qadr the ascension of the Qur’an as celebrated on Ramadan
‘ulûm al-Qur’an
Quranic sciences
Maghazi
genre, descriptions of battles at the time of prophet and companions
Sira
genre, biographical accounts of prophet and companions (important: Ibn Hishan 845
& Ibn Ishaq 767)
Hadieth
short accounts on the deeds and words of the prophet and his followers
isnad
chain of transmission of hadieth
matn
story or account of hadieth
Sunna
‘tradition’, the way of Gods doing (concept)
musnad
hadieth ordered by transmitters
mushannaf
hadieth ordered by topic
sahih
‘authentic’, hadiethcollections by Bukhari and Muslim
muhaddith
collectors of hadieth (8th-9th century)
I’jâz
doctrine of inimitability of Qur’an
Tafsir
commentary/exegesis (important = Tabari 923)
kalâm
Islamic theology studying Islamic dogmas
Fiqh
science of law
tajwid
science of pronunciation
Dates
570
610
612
622
630
birth of Muhammad
first revelation at Hira
start of Muhammad’s preaching in Mecca
Hijra (exile) to Yathrib/Medina (beginning of Muslim calander)
Medina = ‘city of the prophet’
surrender by Meccan tribes
632
653
632-661
661-750
7501923
death of Muhammad
‘Uthmânic Codex (Otman and Zayd b. Thâbit)
well guided-caliphs (Abu Bakr, Omar, Otman, Ali bin Abu Talib)
Umayyad-dynasty (Damascus)
Abbasid-dynasty
establishment of single Qur’an-version by al-Azhar and King Fuad
Persons
Muhammad (570-632): the prophet of Allah
Khadija:
first wife of Muhammad
Hafsa:
wife of Muhammad, collected revelations of Muhammad
‘Aisha
wife of Muhammad, important transmitter in Sunni Islam
Ali
cousin of Muhammad, important transmitter in Shia Islam
Abû Talib:
uncle of Muhammad, raised him
Abu Bakr:
first well-guided caliph (632-634)
Omar:
second well-guided caliph (634-644)
Otman:
third well-guided caliph (644-656)
Ali bin Abi Talib: fourth well-guided caliph (656-661)
Zayd b. Thâbit: collector of Qur’an (others: ‘Ubayy b. Ka’b 642, A’dallah b. Mas’ud 653, Ibm ‘Abbâs
688)
Nawawi
Zarkashi
Suyuti
little book of 40 hadieth
Burhân, collection of all Quranic sciences in 14th century
Itqân, collection of all Quranic sciences in 15th century
Michiel Cuypers: semitic rethoric of circular structures in Qur’an (e.g. Q5)
Theodor Nöldeke: Geschichte des Qorans
John Wansbrough: doubted all traditional Islamic sources
Luxenberg: Qur’an was first a Christian book in Syriac language
Ignaz Goldziher: started critical evaluation of hadieth
Josef Schacht: hadieth growing backwards: the longer the isnad, the older the hadieth
Readings
Q96
Q77
Q25
Q24
Q33
Q5
first Sura, recite and read form same root
different Arabic roots for revelation,
Al-Furqân as name for Qur’an, describes polemic between M. and critcs
various regulations
information on personal life of M., legitimation for adoption of son
relation with Christians and Jews.