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Biology Vocabulary (All by Unit)
VOCABULARY FOR ALL OF BIOLOGY, BY UNIT
BOLD WORDS DENOTE WORDS THAT MUST BE KNOWN TO COMPLETE EOC
UNIT 1:
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
1.
2.
How do humans change the ecosystem?
How can “systems thinking” be used to understand and solve complex problems?
ESTABLISHED GOALS:
Bio.2.1 Analyze the interdependence of living organisms within their environments.
2.1.1 Analyze the flow of energy and cycling of matter (such as water, carbon, nitrogen and
oxygen) through ecosystems relating the
significance of each to maintaining the health and sustainability of an ecosystem.
2.1.3 Explain various ways organisms interact with each other (including predation, competition,
parasitism, mutualism) and with their environments resulting in stability within ecosystems.
1.
PhotosynthesisUnit 1: Introduction, Ecosystems, Human Impact on Environment
2.
Cellular respiration
3.
Decomposer
4.
Energy pyramid
5.
Greenhouse effect
6.
Global warming
7.
Nitrogen cycle
8.
Carbon cycle
9.
Autotroph
10. Heterotroph
11. Consumers
12. Producers
13. Food web
14. Food chain
15. Mutualism
16. Parasitism
17. Population
18. Community
19. Ecosystem
20. Ecology
21. Territoriality
22. Symbiosis
23.Predation
24. Carnivore
25. Herbivore
26. Omnivore
27. Scavenger
28. Carrying capacity
Limiting factor
29. Population
30. Ecosystem
31. HIV/AIDS
32. Influenza
33. Smallpox
34. Tuberculosis
35. Dutch elm disease
36. Pfiesteria
38. Exponential growth
39. Logistic growth
40. J-curve graph
41. S-curve graph.
ESSENTIAL QUESTION
1.
How are the structure and function of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
essential for living organisms?
ESTABLISHED GOALS:
Bio.4.1 Understand how biological molecules are essential to the survival of living
organisms.
4.1.1 Compare the structures and functions of the major biological molecules (carbohydrates,
proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids) as related to the survival of living organisms.
4.1.3 Explain how enzymes act as catalysts for biological reactions
Unit 2: Biochemistry
1.
Organic
2.
Monomer
3.
Polymer
4.
pH scale
5.
Carbohydrates
6.
Proteins
7.
Amino acids
8.
Lipids
9.
Fatty acids
10. Nucleic acids
11. Nucleotides
12. Glucose
13. Cellulose
14. Starch
15. Glycogen
16. Insulin
17. Hemoglobin
18. Phospholipids
19. Triglyceride
20. Steroids
21. DNA
22. RNA
23. Enzymes
24. Activation energy
25. Catalyst
26. Active site
27. substrate
28. Product(s).
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
1.
2.
How is structure related to function in cells?
What is the relationship/interaction between specific organelles, and how they are part of a
living system?
ESTABLISHED GOALS:
Bio.1.1 Understand the relationship between the structures and functions of cells and
their organelles.
1.1.1 Summarize the structure and function of organelles in eukaryotic cells (including the
nucleus, plasma membrane, cell wall, mitochondria, vacuoles, chloroplasts, and ribosomes) and
ways that these organelles interact with each other to perform the function of the cell.
1.1.2 Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells in terms of their general structures (plasma
membrane and genetic material) and degree of complexity.
Unit 3A: Cell Structure
1.
Organelles
2.
Nucleus
3.
Plasma membrane
4.
Cell wall
5.
Mitochondria
6.
Vacuoles
7.
Chloroplasts
8.
Ribosomes
9.
Golgi apparatus
10. Endoplasmic reticulum
11. Centriole
12. Structure
13, Function
14. Prokaryotic
15. Eukaryotic
15. Light microscope
16. Electron microscope
17. Magnification
18. Resolution
19. Multicellular
21, Contractile vacuoles
22. Cilia
23. Flagella
24. Pseudopods
25. Eyespots
26. Chemotaxis
27. Phototaxis
28. Adaptation
29. Innate
30. unicellular
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
1.
2.
How do cells interact with the nonliving environment to maintain homeostasis?
How do cells participate in the energy flow in biological systems?
ESTABLISHED GOALS:
Bio.1.2 Analyze the cell as a living system.
1.2.1 Explain how homeostasis is maintained in a cell and within an organism in various
environments (including temperature and pH).
Bio.4.2 Analyze the relationships between biochemical processes and energy use in the
cell.
4.2.1 Analyze photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of how energy is stored, released,
and transferred within and between these systems.
4.2.2 Explain ways that organisms use released energy for maintaining homeostasis (active
transport).
Unit 3B: Energy in the Cell
1.
pH
2.
Buffer
3.
Glucose
4.
Semi-permeable
5.
Passive transport
6.
Solute
7.
Concentration gradient
8.
Diffusion
9.
Osmosis
10. Facilitated diffusion
11. Active transport
12. ATP
13. Sodium-potassium pump
14. Endocytosis
15. Exocytosis
16. Regulation
17. Homeostasis
18. Photosynthesis
19. Cellular respiration
20. Aerobic
21. Anaerobic
22. Alcoholic fermentation
23. Lactic acid fermentation
24. Metabolism
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
1.
Why are cell reproduction and specialization essential for life?
ESTABLISHED GOALS:
Bio.1.1 Understand the relationship between the structures and functions of cells and
their organelles.
1.1.3 Explain how instructions in DNA lead to cell differentiation and result in cells specialized to
perform specific functions in multicellular organisms.
Unit 3C: Cell Reproduction and Specilizatioz
Regulation
1.
Interphase
2.
G1 (Growth1
3.
S (Synthesis)
4.
G2 (Growth2)
5.
Mitosis
6.
Prophase
7.
Metaphase
8.
Anaphase
9.
Telophase
10. Cytokinesis
11. Asexual reproduction
12. Cell differentiation/specialization
13. Hormone
14. Receptor
15. Stem cell
16. Meiosis
17. Chromosomes
18. Homologous chromosomes
19. Gametes
20. Sexual reproduction
21. Fertilization
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
1.
What determines who you are (in terms of proteins and mutations)?
ESTABLISHED GOALS:
Bio.3.1 Explain how traits are determined by the structure and function of DNA.
3.1.1 Explain the double-stranded, complementary nature of DNA as related to its function in the
cell.
3.1.2 Explain how DNA and RNA code for proteins and determine traits.
3.1.3 Explain how mutations in DNA that result from interactions with t
the environment (i.e. radiation and chemicals) or new
combinations in existing genes lead to changes in function
and phenotype.
Bio.4.1 Understand how biological molecules are essential to the survival of living
organisms.
4.1.2 Summarize the relationship among DNA, proteins and amino acids in carrying out the work
of cells and how this is similar in all organisms.
Unit 4A: DNA
1.
Double helix
2.
DNA
3.
Nucleotide
4.
Hydrogen bonds
5.
Nitrogenous base
6.
Complementary
7.
Gene
8.
Replication
9. Transcription
10. mRNA
11. rRNA
12. tRNA
13. Translation
14. Amino acids
15. Protein
16 Codon
17. Codon chart
18. Mutation
19. Point mutation
20. Frame-shift mutation
21. Carcinogen
22. Mutagen
23. Nucleic acids
24. Nucleotides
25. DNA
26. RNA
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
1.
What determines who you are (in terms of proteins and mutations)?
ESTABLISHED GOALS:
Bio.3.1 Explain how traits are determined by the structure and function of DNA.
3.1.1 Explain the double-stranded, complementary nature of DNA as related to its function in the
cell.
3.1.2 Explain how DNA and RNA code for proteins and determine traits.
3.1.3 Explain how mutations in DNA that result from interactions with t
the environment (i.e. radiation and chemicals) or new
combinations in existing genes lead to changes in function
and phenotype.
Bio.4.1 Understand how biological molecules are essential to the survival of living
organisms.
4.1.2 Summarize the relationship among DNA, proteins and amino acids in carrying out the work
of cells and how this is similar in all organisms.
Unit 4B: Heredity
1.
Meiosis
2.
Chromosomes
3.
Homologous chromosomes
4.
Crossing over
5.
Independent assortment
6.
Gametes
7. Genetic diversity
8. Sexual reproduction
9. Gene mutations
10. Non-disjunction
11. Fertilization
12. Punnett square
13. Genotype
14. Phenotype
15. Dominant trait
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
1.
2.
How can DNA be utilized to benefit society?
What should be the limits on DNA technology?
ESTABLISHED GOALS:
Bio.3.3 Understand the application of DNA technology.
3.3.1 Interpret how DNA is used for comparison and identification of organisms.
3.3.2 Summarize how transgenic organisms are engineered to benefit society.
3.3.3 Evaluate some of the ethical issues surrounding the use of DNA technology (including
cloning, genetically modified organisms, stem cell research, and Human Genome Project).
Unit 4C: Biotechnology
1.
Gel electrophoresis
2.
Restriction enzymes
3.
DNA fingerprinting
4.
Transgenic organism
5.
Bacterial transformation
6.
Plasmid
7.
Genetic engineering
8.
Human Genome Project
9.
Gene therapy
10. Genetically modified organism
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
1.
2.
Why do humans use classification?
How does classifying using criteria help us understand the living world?
ESTABLISHED GOALS:
Bio.3.5 Analyze how classification systems are developed upon speciation.
3.5.1 Explain the historical development and changing nature of classification systems.
3.5.2 Analyze the classification of organisms according to their evolutionary relationships
(including dichotomous keys and
phylogenetic trees
Unit 5A: Classification System
1.
Taxonomy
2.
Classification
3.
Binomial nomenclature
4.
Carolus Linnaeus
5.
Scientific name
6.
Hierarchy
7.
Dichotomous key
8.
Classification
9.
Phylogenetic tree
Unit 5B: EVOLUTION
1.
Homologous structures
2.
Vestigial structures
3.
Anaerobic prokaryote
4.
Fossil
5.
Evolution
6.
Photosynthetic
7.
Eukaryotic
8.
Multicellular
9.
Primordial
10. Carbon
11. Hydrogen
12. Nitrogen
13. Oxygen
14. Amino acid
15. Natural selection
16. Darwin
17. Geographic isolation
18. Co-evolution
19. Divergent evolution
20. Convergent evolution
21. Artificial selection
23. Adaptation
24. Speciation
25. Mutation
26. Antibiotic
27. Antigen
28. Antibody, B-cells
29. White blood cells
30. Passive immunity
31. Active immunity
32. Vaccine
33. T-cells
34. Memory cells
25. Antiviral
26. Toxin
27. Pathogen
28. Helper cells
UNIT 5C: ADAPTATIONS
1.
Photosynthesis
2.
Cellular respiration
3.
Excretion
4.
Decomposer
5.
Energy pyramid
6.
Greenhouse effect
7.
Global warming
8.
Nitrogen cycle
9.
Carbon cycle
10. Autotroph
11. Heterotroph
12. Consumers
13. Producers
14. Food web
15. Food chain
16. Adaptation
17. Taxis
18. Estivation
19. Hibernation
20. Learned behavior
21. Habituation
22. Imprinting
23. Conditioning
24. Migration
25. Suckling
26. Vascular
27. Gymnosperm
28. Angiosperm
29. Non-vascular
30. Respiration
31. Fertilization
32. Placenta
33. Marsupials
34. Monotremes
35. Mutualism
36. Parasitism
37. Pheromones
38. Population
39. Community
40. Ecosystem
41. Ecology
42. Territoriality
43. Symbiosis
44. Predation
45. Food chain
46. Carnivore
47. Herbivore
48. Omnivore
50. Scavenger
51. Decomposer
52. Random sampling
53. Mark and recapture
54. Carrying capacity
55. Limiting factor
56. Population
57. Ecosystem
58. HIV/AIDS
59. Influenza
60. Small pox
61. Tuberculosis
62. Dutch elm disease
64. Pfiesteria
65. Exponential growth
66. Logistic growth
67. J-curve graph
68. S-curve graph