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"Police and People under Vichy France: A Case Study in Duty
and Loyalty." Director Harry A. Paape of the Netherlands
State Institute for War Documentation was unfortunately not
able to attend and give his scheduled paper on "Anne Frank
and Her Diary." His place on the panel was taken by Prof.
Arthur L. Funk, University of Florida, who spoke on Henri
Michel, stressing his role as an historian of the war and
the Resistance.
The Washington historian Martin Blumenson began his com­
ment with a tribute to Henri Michel, and then, before turning
to individual issues raised in the two papers, made several
general observations regarding the German occupation and the
anti-German resistance.
"Mr. Henri Michel," he said, "laid much of the groundwork
and established much of the framework for the study of World
War II. He did so in three ways: by writing his magisterial
historical works, by setting up and putting into place a mag­
nificent archival collection system, and by guiding the organ­
ization and proceedings of an international body of scholars.
He sought to impose no boundaries on inquiry and knowledge.
To my mind, all of us working on World War II are following
in Henri Michel's footsteps. We are amplifying and fleshing
out his explorations. This seems to be our function in our
session this afternoon.
"The excellent papers, in their individual manners, make
clear the difficulties Europeans had to live with and to sur­
vive in countries occupied by the Germans and administered by
the Nazis. Defeat and occupation required the inhabitants to
make substantial adjustments and accommodations to an entire­
ly new way of life.
liThe difference, or at least one difference, between san­
ity and insanity is the ability to deal with reality. Reali­
ty for many Europeans in 1940--even earlier in some places,
for example, in Czechoslovakia--was the presence of Germans,
military and civilian, in their midst. The military in their
uniforms were more visible, but all personified not only the
power of the German state but also the intent to impose a new
system, a new order on Europe. People grumbled, but this was
the reality, and at first everyone, or almost everyone, ac­
cepted the new circumstances and sought to conform to the new
"It seems to me that recovery from the shock of defeat
was the first reaction of conquered and overrun people and
that an attempt to recognize and live with the occupation was
the second.
In the early days, I believe that the effort to
accommodate to the occupation was labeled patritism. Love of
country meant preserving something that was left of the enti­
ty, of national feeling, of cultural bonds, all in the face
of foreign domination.
"Patriotism later changed, at least for some, perhaps
for most people. The Germans did not know how to occupy, and
their early desire to be 'correct' toward the occupied popula­