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1 5
logical warfare to include propaganda, economic warfare, sab­
otage, guerilla warfare, counter-espionage, contact with un­
derground groups in enemy-controlled territory and contact
with foreign-nationality groups in the United states.
Cal had been a small civilian agency composed of little
more than a handful of branches and offices; before the close
of World War II, ass, a semi-military agency, would grow to
consist of some fifty branches, divisions, and units with a
well-chosen staff of almost 13,000 men and women.
When the ass closed down in October 1945, nearly all
the records it had created were transferred to one of two
agencies, the state Department or the War Department. Rec­
ords of the Research and Analysis Branch (R and A), the
branch that created more records than any other in the ass,
were sent to the state Department where members of the old
R and A staff eventually formed the Office of Intelligence
The exceptional style and scholarship often typi­
cal of these records is not surprising when one considers
that William L. Langer, the R and A chief, appointed some of
the finest historians, economists, and social scientists in
the United states to serve in the R and A Branch. Among them,
to mention only a few, were Crane Brinton, Harold C. Deutsch,
Hajo Holborn, H. stuart Hughes, Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., Her­
bert Marcuse, Carl Schorske, Walt Rostow, and Charles Kindle­
berger. Five of the R and A economists later became presi­
dents of the American Economic Association; seven of the his­
torians became presidents of the American Historical Associa­
In 1946, the State Department released R and A records
amounting to more than 1 ,000 cubic feet of documents to the
National Archives. R and A records include correspondence,
cables, minutes of meetings, progress reports, budget stud­
ies, press clippings, foreign publications files, POW interro­
gations, target information, and the R and A map collection.
The largest series by far, however, consists of informational
intelligence reports on political, economic, military, and
morale matters for almost every nation in the world.
In 1975,
the National Archives made the R and A records available for
general research. Researchers interested in a wide variety
of topics such as the Allied unconditional surrender policy,
the Resistance, tensions among the Allies, Allied relations
with the neutral nations, the question of a separate peace,
German opposition to Hitler, and many other subjects have
found valuable information in these records.
(See Appendix
1, Entries 1 -84) .
On the same day that President Truman terminated ass,
custody of all of its records other than those of R and A was
transferred to the Strategic Services Unit (SSU), a War De­
partment office made up of personnel drawn from the ass Se­
cret Intelligence and Counterintelligence Branches. The rec­
ords assigned to SSU comprised the files of the various ass
branches, divisions and units from Washington, New York, and
San Francisco as well as ass field offices from Casablanca to