Chapter 10 - Launching the New Ship of State Download

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Chapter 10
Launching the New Ship of State
1789-1800
American Pageant
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Chapter 10
Launching the New Ship of
State
1789-1800
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PERIOD 3: 1754–1800
Key Concept 3.3
Migration within North America, cooperative interaction, and competition for resources raised questions about boundaries
and policies, intensified conflicts among peoples and nations, and led to contests over the creation of a multiethnic,
multiracial national identity.
I. In the decades after
American independence,
interactions among different
groups resulted in competition
for resources, shifting
alliances, and cultural
blending.
II. The continued presence of
European powers in North
America challenged the
United States to find ways to
safeguard its borders,
maintain neutral trading
rights, and promote its
economic interests.
A) Various American Indian groups
repeatedly evaluated and adjusted their
alliances with Europeans, other tribes,
and the U.S., seeking to limit migration
of white settlers and maintain control of
tribal lands and natural resources.
British alliances with American Indians
contributed to tensions between the U.S.
and Britain.
B) As increasing numbers of migrants
from North America and other parts of
the world continued to move westward,
frontier cultures that had emerged in the
colonial period continued to grow,
fueling social, political, and ethnic
tensions.
A) The United States government
forged diplomatic initiatives aimed at
dealing with the continued British and
Spanish presence in North America, as
U.S. settlers migrated beyond the
Appalachians and sought free navigation
of the Mississippi River.
C) As settlers moved westward
during the 1780s, Congress
enacted the Northwest ordinance
for admitting new states; the
ordinance promoted public
education, the protection of
private property, and a ban on
slavery in the Northwest
Territory.
An ambiguous relationship
between the federal
government and American
Indian tribes contributed to
problems regarding treaties
and American Indian legal
claims relating to the seizure
of their lands.
B) War between France and
Britain resulting from the French
Revolution presented challenges
to
the United States over issues of
free trade and foreign policy and
fostered political disagreement.
C) George Washington’s
Farewell Address encouraged
national unity, as he
cautioned against political
factions and warned about the
danger of permanent foreign
alliances.
E) The Spanish, supported by
the bonded labor of the local
American Indians, expanded
their mission settlements into
California; these provided
opportunities for social
mobility among soldiers and
led to new cultural blending.
Checklist of Learning Objectives
After mastering this chapter, you should be able to:
1.
State why George Washington was pivotal to inaugurating the new federal government.
2.
Describe the methods and policies Alexander Hamilton used to put the federal government on a sound financial footing.
3.
Explain how the conflict between Hamilton and Jefferson led to the emergence of the first political parties.
4.
Describe the polarizing effects of the French Revolution on American foreign and domestic policy and politics from 1790 to 1800.
5.
Explain the rationale for Washington’s neutrality policies, including the conciliatory Jay’s Treaty and why the treaty provoked Jeffersonian outrage.
6.
Describe the causes of the undeclared war with France, and explain Adams’s decision to seek peace rather than declare war.
7.
Describe the poisonous political atmosphere that produced the Alien and Sedition Acts and the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions.
8.
Describe the contrasting membership and principles of the Hamiltonian Federalists and the Jeffersonian Republicans, and how they laid the foundations of the American
political party system.
SHORT ANWSER
Identify and state the historical significance of the following:
1.
John Adams
2.
Thomas Jefferson
3.
Alexander Hamilton
4.
Henry Knox
5.
John Jay
6.
Citizen Edmond Genêt
7.
Talleyrand
8.
Matthew Lyon
9.
James Madison
10. Little Turtle
Define and state the historical significance of the following:
11. funding at par
12. strict construction
13. assumption
14. implied powers
15. protective tariff
16. agrarian
17. excise tax
18. compact theory
19. nullification
20. amendment
21. impressment
Describe and state the historical significance of the following:
1.
22.
Bank of the United States
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
23.
Bill of Rights
24.
French Revolution
25.
Jay's Treaty
26.
Convention of 1800
27.
Neutrality Proclamation of 1793
28.
Whiskey Rebellion
29.
Ninth Amendment
30.
Federalists
31.
Tenth Amendment
32.
Pinckney Treaty
33.
Alien and Sedition Acts
34.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
35.
Farewell Address
36.
Virginia and Kentucky resolutions
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
37.
Democratic-Republicans
38.
Judiciary Act of 1789
39.
Treaty of Greenville
40.
XYZ affair
41.
Miami Confederacy
Notes: Fill in Outline
Chapter 10 - Launching the New Ship of State
I. Growing Pains
II. Washington for President
III. The Bill of Rights
IV. Hamilton Revives the Corpse of Public Credit
V. Customs Duties and Excise Taxes
VI. Hamilton Battles Jefferson for a Bank
VII. Mutinous Moonshiners in Pennsylvania
VIII. The Emergence of Political Parties
IX. The Impact of the French Revolution
X. Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation
XI. Embroilments with Britain
XII. Jay’s Treaty and Washington’s Farewell
XIII. John Adams Becomes President
XIV. Unofficial Fighting with France
XV. Adams Puts Patriotism Above Party
XVI. The Federalist Witch Hunt
XVII. The Virginia (Madison) and Kentucky (Jefferson) Resolutions
XVIII. Federalists Versus Democratic-Republicans
Applying What You Have Learned
9.
What were the most important steps that George Washington took to establish the authority and prestige of the new federal government under the Constitution?
10.
Explain the purpose and significance of the Bill of Rights. Did these Ten Amendments significantly weaken the authority of the federal government, or actually enhance it?
11.
What were Hamilton’s basic economic and political goals, and how did he attempt to achieve them?
12.
What were the philosophical and political disagreements between Hamilton and Jefferson that led to the creation of the first American political parties?
13.
What were the basic goals of Washington’s and Adams’s foreign policies, and how successful were they in achieving them?
14.
How did divisions over foreign policy, especially the French Revolution, poison American politics and threaten the fledgling nation’s unity in the 1790s?
15.
In foreign policy, the Federalists believed that the United States needed to build a powerful national state to gain equality with the great powers of Europe, while the
Republicans believed the country should isolate itself from Europe and turn toward the West. What were the strengths and weaknesses of each policy, and why was the
Republicans’ view generally favored by most Americans in the 1800s?
16.
Although Federalists and Republicans engaged in extremely bitter political struggles during this period, they both retained their commitment to the American experiment,
and in 1800, power was peacefully handed from Federalists to Republicans. What shared beliefs and experiences enabled them to keep the nation together, despite their deep
disagreements? Was there ever a serious danger that the new federal government could have collapsed in civil war?
HIPP
Congression
al Pugilists
Satirical
representatio
n of
Matthew
Lyon’s fight
in
Congress
with the
Federalist
representativ
e Roger
Griswold.
Historic
al
Context:
Intended
Audienc
e:
Author’s
Purpose:
Author’s
Point of
View:
Notes