... • Substance Abuse
– Pattern of drug use that diminishes one’s ability
to fulfill responsibilities
– May result in repeated use in dangerous
– May lead to legal difficulties related to drug use
Neurobiology of Addiction
... If drug is not available to the neuron,
unpleasant emotional and physical
effects occur, because the normal
activating and inhibitory
neurotransmitter levels have
See example, next slide
What is Addiction?
... Located in the _______________
Allows us to weigh __________________
Referred to as “The Seat of Sober Thought”
Pre-Frontal Cortex still developing in teenagers
“What are the implications of this information?”
Substance Abuse Outline
... disorder; 65% of women have an additional psychiatric disorder.
Most common comorbid disorders: depression, anxiety, schizophrenia,
other psychoses, ADHD.
SUBSTANCE ABUSE DISORDERS Different substances affect the
... because of substance use
Substances which are abused:
Alcohol makes people less alert and impairs concentration and coordination. Long term
problems with alcohol use can occur in many areas- physical, psychological and social.
People who use alcohol are more likely to be introduced to other drugs.
... drug or even activity such as sex that gives
short term pleasure can cause the addict to
return to this activity or substance again and
again so that the depression is forgotten for a
while. This need for short term pleasure leads
to repeated pleasure seeking behavior and
thus creates addiction.
315 LECTURE #1
... Common Elements
Excessive use & Duration of use:
Exceeds acceptable social norms
Progression: Worsens with time
Loss of Control:
Unable to control amount.
preoccupation with getting/using drug
Social, Economic, legal, or physical
Substance Abuse Terminology (April 2014)
... Methadone: A long-acting synthetic opioid
medication that is used in treating opioid
addiction and pain.
Opioid: A compound or drug that binds to
receptors in the brain involved in the control
of pain and other functions (e.g., morphine,
heroin, hydrocodone, oxycodone).
Physical Dependence: An adapt ...
Substance Related Disorders
... behavior and loss of decisional flexibility
•Not all who become dependent experience it
same way or are motivated by same factors
•Different factors may be more or less
important at different stages (drug
availability, social acceptance, peer pressure,
personality and biology)
Dysregulated Postsynaptic Density and Endocytic Zone in the
... Taking the substance in larger amounts or for longer than the you meant to
Wanting to cut down or stop using the substance but not managing to
Spending a lot of time getting, using, or recovering from use of the substance
Cravings and urges to use the substance
Not managing to do what you ...
Bruce Alexander Presentation - FEAD (Film Exchange on Alcohol
... of a drug or other substance; spec. a
condition characterized by regular or
poorly controlled use of a psychoactive
substance despite adverse physical,
psychological, or social consequences,
often with the development of
physiological tolerance and withdrawal
DEFINITION OF “ADDICTION” The term "addiction" is used in many
... Addiction and drug control legislation.: Most countries have legislation which brings
various drugs and drug-like substances under the control of licensing systems. Typically this
legislation covers any or all of the opiates, amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine,
barbiturates, hallucinogens (tryptami ...
... Substance Use Disorders: maladaptive use of psychoactive substances
Substance-Induced Disorders: disorders that can be induced by using psychoactive
Psychotic disorde ...
What is Addiction?
... behaviour, reverting to it to feel pleasure and to find relief from pain and distress. In its more advanced
forms, the person loses control over the behaviour. The feeling of loss of control is what people with
more severe addictions commonly report as a defining characteristic of their problem. ...
Alcohol and Drug Related Disorders
... Intoxication is not diagnosed when someone
simply ingests a substance that has the desired
effect and no undesired side effects.
Ch 13 Lesson 2 Notes * addiction, dependence, secondhand smoke
... body itself feels a direct need for a drug. Body craves it.
- It takes approximately 20 seconds for nicotine
to reach the brain
- Activates the adrenal glands
- Leaves the body craving more
Psychological Dependence - Type of addiction in which the
mind send signals to the body that it needs more of ...
... 1. Tolerance (needing more to become intoxicated or discovering less effect with same
2. Withdrawal* (characteristic withdrawal associated with type of drug)
3. Using more or for longer periods than intended?
4. Desire to or unsuccessful efforts to cut down?
5. Considerable time spent in obt ...
A. V. Sapay, O. N. Produn, A. V. Aleksandrova Psychological
... Abstinents syndrome is much worse that heroin addiction. Specifically speaking, it is more
vexatious, prolonged, and has strong impact on mental state. The syndrome reveals through all sorts of
mental disorders. Prime symptoms are depression, neurasthenia, conduct disorder, powerful
compulsive attra ...
Understanding Theories of Addictive Disorders
... Date-rape drug: drugs like Rohypnol (flunitrazepam), a strong
sedative-hypnotic that can induce amnesia, and GHB are slipped
into a drink so that a date can be assaulted while in a stupor and not
remember what happened. It is now banned in the United States.
Designer drugs (analogues): drugs formula ...
Substance Use Disorders
... – Over 50% of the U.S. (> 12 years age) report current
– 15 million Americans are alcohol dependent
– Rates are highest among Caucasian & Native
– Males use and abuse alcohol more than females
– Violence is associated with alcohol
– Alcohol alone does not cause aggression
... Tolerance (need for increase amounts; diminished
effect of the same amount)
Withdrawal (certain symptoms when stop substance
use, alcohol cures the syndrome)
Persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down
Great amount of time is spent on activity related to
Substance use disorder
Substance use disorder, also known as drug use disorder, is a condition in which the use of one or more substances leads to a clinically significant impairment or distress. Although the term substance can refer to any physical matter, 'substance' in this context is limited to psychoactive drugs. Substance Use Disorder refers to the overuse of, or dependence on, a drug leading to effects that are detrimental to the individual's physical and mental health, or the welfare of others.The disorder is characterized by a pattern of continued pathological use of a medication, non-medically indicated drug or toxin, which results in repeated adverse social consequences related to drug use, such as failure to meet work, family, or school obligations, interpersonal conflicts, or legal problems. There are on-going debates as to the exact distinctions between substance abuse and substance dependence, but current practice standard distinguishes between the two by defining substance dependence in terms of physiological and behavioral symptoms of substance use, and substance abuse in terms of the social consequences of substance use. In the DSM-5 substance use disorder replaced substance abuse and substance dependence.In 2013 drug use disorders resulted in 127,000 deaths up from 53,000 in 1990. The highest number of deaths are from opioid use disorders at 51,000. Cocaine use disorder resulted in 4,300 deaths and amphetamine use disorder resulted in 3,800 deaths. Alcohol use disorders resulted in an additional 139,000 deaths.