2. The ethnography of speaking and the structure of conversation
... The study of language must deal with the ‘real’ texts that form human communication and the social
situations they are used in.
The speech event is constituted by seven distinct factors, each associated with a different function:
- speaker / writer,
- hearer / reader,
- message form (passed between ...
... Study institutional factors that influence
speech such as choice of language,
Study individual factors such as values,
Intro to Rhetorical Criticism
... When? – Timing of speech
Where? – Placement of speech
How? – Production and deliver of speech; who
wrote it? How was it delivered? How might
the medium have shaped the creation and
delivery of the text?
Foresight - Unique Media TV
... • No discussion of the grounding of language. Use of analogy: can a computer
understand language without a grounding of language?
• Solving the problem of speech is not the same as solving the problem of
• Communication between brains and communication within brains: what can one
teach abo ...
Ottenheimer 6 - Cynthia Clarke
... The standard way to determine the difference between a language and a dialect is to test for mutual intelligibility.
Dialects are mutually intelligibility means that the speakers are using dialects of a language.
Lack of mutual intelligibility means that the speakers are using different languages.
ETHNOGRAPHY OF COMMUNICATION
... necessary reminder that talk is complex activity, and that any
particular bit of talk is actually a piece of ‘skilled work’. To be
successful, the speaker must reveal a sensitivity to and
awareness of each of the eight factors outlined above. Speakers
and listeners must also work to see that nothing ...
... true or false, but statements such as "I now pronounce you husband and
wife" are something different, their successful outcome depending on a
number of conditions (i.e., "felicity conditions") that cannot be evaluated
in terms of truth. Such declarations are performative, not constative, because it ...
Treatment Efficacy Summary: Stuttering
... stutter and 5% of children exhibit
stuttering. People who stutter are
often subjected to discrimination
due to public misconceptions about
the disorder. Employers believe that
stuttering decreases employability
and interferes with promotion
opportunities. School children who
stutter exhibit poorer e ...
The Normative Structures of Human Civilization. Readings in John
... framework of time and space, circulates normative orientations as an expression
of cultural identities and conceptions of how to lead a decent life.
Reformulated in Searle’s language game:
What does it mean that facts endowed with deontic institutional power by declarations of validity contradict on ...
Language-Independent Socio-Emotional Role
... sume a personal perspective; Supporter - a speaker that shows
a cooperative attitude demonstrating attention and acceptance
providing technical and relational support; Neutral - a speaker
that passively accepts others ideas; Gatekeeper - a speaker that
acts like group moderator, mediates and encoura ...
Cultural Aspects of Japanese Family Address Terms as Part of
... Linguistically speaking, in English the address terms like ‘grandfather’,
‘grandmother’, ‘father’, ‘mother’, ‘elder brother’, ‘younger brother’, and ‘younger
sister’ can be used between any people in any speech situation, but in Japanese the
speaker must consider his/her relationship with the listen ...
Social Ontology: Some Basic Principles
... cannot begin to understand what is special about human society, how it differs from
primate societies and other animal societies, unless you first understand some special
features of human language. Language is the presupposition of the existence of other
social institutions in a way that they are n ...
CONTEXT AND COGNITION: KNOWLEDGE FRAMES AND
... that of sincerity which requires a direct link between what is thought, etc. and
what is shown.
More generally it may even be said that the proper social conditions involved in
the formulation of pragmatic rules, such as authority, power, role and politeness
relations, operate on a cognitive basis: ...
chapter two - UM Students` Repository
... notion of diglossia is not fully applicable in multilingual communities (like that found in
Malaysia) in its original form, where there is usually a more complex language situation.
Ferguson’s concept of diglossia also has its drawbacks though this concept has been
extended by Fishman (1967) to incl ...
Norms and Sociolinguistic Description1
... connected to social status, in the literature it is often used as a term that
refers to any kind of appeal that a certain language form has. This has lead
to concepts that are paradoxical to begin with. For example Trudgill (1972)
introduced term covert prestige to describe favorable disposition tow ...
WHAT IS MEANT BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS?
... conception of meaning which holds speakers responsible for the social consequences of their acts of
speaking rather than for intentions ascribed to them). However, such a critique requires an elaboration
in its own right to the extent that it is based on assumptions of cultural uniformity at the exp ...
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL MODELS OF
... think it behooves all social psychologists, regardless of their substantive interests, to be familiar
with the processes that underlie communication.
This chapter will review four models of interpersonal communication and some of the
research that they have motivated. As was noted above, communicati ...
... issue. Weber uses the German word Stände which was translated directly into the word
status and interpreted as status groups varying in their relative hierarchical social standing
in the community by Roth and Wittich in their widely accepted English translation of
Weber’s (1914/1978) Economy and Soc ...
This article is on systems of honorific speech in linguistics. For honorific titles, see Honorific.In linguistics, an honorific (abbreviated HON) is a grammatical or morphosyntactic form that encodes the relative social status of the participants of the conversation. Distinct from honorific titles, linguistic honorifics convey formality FORM, social distance, politeness POL, humility HBL, deference, or respect through the choice of an alternate form such as an affix, clitic, grammatical case, change in person or number, or an entirely different lexical item. A key feature of an honorific system is that one can convey the same message in both honorific and familiar forms—i.e., it is possible to say something like (as in an oft-cited example from Brown and Levinson) ""The soup is hot"" in a way that confers honor or deference on one of the participants of the conversation.Honorific speech is a type of social deixis, as an understanding of the context—in this case, the social status of the speaker relative to the other participants or bystanders—is crucial to its use.There are three main types of honorifics, categorized according to the individual whose status is being expressed:Addressee (or speaker/hearer)Referent (or speaker/referent)Bystander (or speaker/bystander)Addressee honorifics express the social status of the person being spoken to (the hearer), regardless of what is being talked about. For example, Javanese has three different words for ""house"" depending on the status level of the person spoken to. Referent honorifics express the status of the person being spoken about. In this type of honorific, both the referent (the person being spoken about) and the target (the person whose status is being expressed) of the honorific expression are the same. This is exemplified by the T–V distinction present in many Indo-European languages, in which a different 2nd person pronoun (such as tu or vous in French) is chosen based on the relative social status of the speaker and the hearer (the hearer, in this case, also being the referent). Bystander honorifics express the status of someone who is nearby, but not a participant in the conversation (the overhearer). These are the least common, and are found primarily in avoidance speech such as the ""mother-in-law languages"" of aboriginal Australia, where one changes one's speech in the presence of an in-law or other tabooed relative.A fourth type, the Speaker/Situation honorific, does not concern the status of any participant or bystander, but the circumstances and environment in which the conversation is occurring. The classic example of this is diglossia, in which an elevated or ""high form"" of a language is used in situations where more formality is called for, and a vernacular or ""low form"" of a language is used in more casual situations.